Cisco had 4 Major technical architecture, it consist of Enterprise Networking, Collaboration Architecture, Data Center Architecture and Security architecture.

Enterprise Networking
This architecture consists of Cisco core networking product such as routing, switching, wireless.
Routing will be Cisco ISR router, switching will be Cisco catalyst switch, and Cisco Aironet wireless

Collaboration Architecture
This architecture include product such as video, phone, vioce email.
Example Cisco telePresense video conferencing solution, IP phone solution and Unity connect voicemail solution.

Data Center Architecture
This architecture offers solutions in areas such as virtualization, cloud, servers, and unified computing to name a few.

Security Architecture
This architecture overlays the other three architectures, formally a part of enterprise networking, Cisco created security as its own independent architecture because it contains critical components that integrate with each of the others architecture.
example Cisco ASA firewall, Firepower, also include hardware appliances and software application

To learn more about Cisco architectures, you may visit this link